Monday, 14 September 2015

Macro-Level Trends – Social Trend Drivers – Critical Theory (Part 1)

The realms of fashion clothing, fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) and other areas of broader retail have long sought to appreciate and leverage the various heavily entwined strands of social change and consumerism, effectively creating “cause coupled consumerism”.

[NB the 'rockstar' philosopher Slavoj Zizek has well demonstrated the manner by which social values have been absorbed into the retail transaction, eg Starbucks coffee, so as to both create and assuage inherent consumer guilt].

The Benetton adverts of the late 1980s struck a massive chord at the time and boosted the sales of knitwear etc immensely as the trend for conscientious consumption sprouted; along with the “fur is murder” campaign splattered across over-priced designer T-shirts. Later came the adoption of apparent 'fair-trade' practices by the large super-market chains. With more recently, in a polar opposite sphere, Christian Louboutin deploying the worthiness of hand-painted original traditional shoes, with a modern twist, by Bhutanese artists.

Unlike FMCG and fashion, with far more immediate overtones, the high purchase price and long lifetime use of a car has thus far typically been relatively untouched by the peaks and piques of social consciousness.

That is not to say social consciousness has gone unheeded, far from it. Manufacturers well recognise the regulatory and consumer importance of CO2 emissions of cars (but also factories), and likewise the many-fold increase in the sustainable sourcing of materials, making major strides forward, so leading industrial world, (shifts initially led by the Germans and Japanese). Annual Reports and Sustainability Reports extol the ongoing advancements made.

Yet the new car is still fortunately viewed as apart from typical shopping.

Today's somewhat eroded but still powerful perspective comes from the historical precedent as to what a new car ostensibly represents as a status symbol (whether within a council estate or private members club), the patently very different decision-making and purchase process of the car - even with the influence of the web – and the fact that any 'commoditisation' that has occurred has prompted producers and distributors to enhance the purchase process, from Hyundai-Kia's leverage of the brand's “touch-point” in the UK's Bluewater shopping mall, to Rolls-Royce's Berkeley Square site being closed upon a weekend to intentionally espouse 'establishment traditionalism'.

Thus, the very dynamics of system which produced a long-lived product, its perception and usage, means that the automotive sector's not being in the immediate consumption arena allows it to escape 'in the moment' of consumer trends. Instead, it must accord to the demands of not short-term marketplace trends, but the requirement to appease and indeed lead those socio-economic trends which have far greater overall, long horizon shifts across the ever-broadening global PESTEL space.

For nigh on a century after its inception the car offered: firstly novelty, then status, thereafter comfort, then convenience, with by the early 1920s the conventional formulae set by way of separated segmentation (eg Austin 7 to Hispano-Suiza). The rise of competitive motor racing also adding market-place attraction whether dedicated (eg Type 35 Bugatti) or modified (eg Austin 7 Ulster) providing an additional draw for consumer attraction, differentiation and expectation.

[NB It was only much later - after a cost-based reluctance by manufacturers in the 1950s – did safety became a slowly rising concern, though still to this day lagging aspects such as style to this day].

Thus luxury, sportiness and, essential for the mass market, 'middle of the road' aggregated attributes for the common car, with varying levels of practicality and efficiency, dependent upon the socio-economic demands and expectations of various countries: (ie in the post-WW2 period: France's pram-like Citroen 2CV versus the UK's 'middling' Morris Minor versus America's ubiquitous large Ford Custom.

Although periodically witnessed previously, during the 1957 and 1974 oil crises, it was not until post Kyoto Summit, in the 1990s that the formulae was truly expanded to include the new dimension of ecological efficiency; early recognition such as the limited production small engined, 3 cylinder Opel Corsa of the time, now an increasing norm.

[NB Stop Press - the recent revelation that Volkswagen (and possibly others) have fitted Euro IV and V emissions 'detection defeat' devices - written into the ECU software code - has obviously made headline news. (The VW share has been hammered after China's rapid slowdown, and now a further near 20% drop, so presently viewed as worth nearly half its value of six months ago). Nonetheless, it must be recognised that car-makers have indeed made substantial CO2 and 'particulates' reductions in real world conditions, via the powertrain advances over the last 20 years to the public good. Fortunately, the revelation now will demand even greater research and development efforts, across whole vehicle engineering, not typical bias toward powertrain. The news then could become the step change required to see substantial new advances].        

And of course since the turn of the 21st century the explosion of the personal and systems communications era has seen vehicle increasingly become mobile computing platforms for a wide array of electronics-based opportunities (ie GM's OnStar and Ford's SYNC highlighting the broad initial base-line through to VM and OEM research on highway-bound self-driving trucks and Google's efforts of a wholly autonomous 'urban pod'.

Such developments then have been introduced primarily in recognition of political pressures, associated regulatory demands and lobbying bodies (eg Smog reduction efforts, CAFE fuel efficiency demands, and NCAP safety measures). But also, more recently, in a bid to gain in-market competitive advantage, the very innards of vehicle systems themselves have been expanded, co-opted external solutions and so effectively redefined by electro-mechanical and electrical research and development engineers; so as to create new worlds of possibilities, such as “car as comms centre” and more futuristic “car as (input-output) energy centre” ,

Combinations of once very different technical disciplines, and the creation of ever more powerful technological platforms has led to the contemporary oft used adage that: “the contemporary car has greater computing prowess than the systems that sent the Apollo missions to the moon”.

So, as is obvious, unlike the far more transient occurrences within FMCG, fashion or more generalist retail, which trade far less complex and costly products, the development of the car has, (besides tactical competitive actions of style or specification), been somewhat remote from the obvious trends public / consumer attention has been drawn toward.

[NB Though it must be said that much of the attention created regards certain issues, has - since the days of the BodyShop brand – been a useful conduit to promote the general persona of an 'ethical brand' for commercial reasons; the more affluent the end-buyer the more conscientious s/he tends to believe themselves to be; even if it be for the sake of keeping-up appearance amongst their social set].

However, this is not to say that auto-makers take no note of the broader consumer environment and psyche. Though understandably low on any Board-level discussion agenda, each manufacturer does to varying degrees research the broader world beyond the immediate, more rudimentary demands of product, brand and buyer-type research. Though with a marketing functions typically spending much of its time upon more immediate strategic and tactical concerns, all too often actually plotting the broad picture of tomorrow's social environment, marketplace, consumer circumstances, attitude and prevalent behavior, into a meaningful and usable package tends to be an overtly hard task.

Typically any such effort will be undertaken as a shared project between marketing and design, using the edicts of any renowned social commentator, forecaster and 'futurologist' as assumed corner-stones.
It obviously makes complete sense to utilise the learning of specialist others, those who are adept at such social readings, increasingly deploying the valuable input of 'big data' measures as our world becomes increasingly 'networked'.

And very usefully, today's upload video age allows marketeers to become aware of new and promoted new social movements such as 'MGTOW'.

[NB MGTOW (Men Going Their Own Way) is an enhanced version of the 'Herbivore' phenomenon seen earlier in Japan, a consequence of its early 1990s economic melt-down. This recent but widespread western trend has grown massively, and points to what is now viewed as a much altered gender equality landscape; whereby the equality rights of women (eg employment, pay) have been correctly given, yet whereby many woman are hypocritically happy to continue to gain in many ways from their socially engrained position.

Such men believe that many woman have abused the position of the 'weaker sex' to gain circumstantial power of men, especially when “crying wolf” to the authorities. This trend long emerged in poorer ex-industrial towns as long as 30 years ago, but today very heavily prompted post the 2008 crisis, generating lost employment and lost social roles for men, so creating financial friction in the home, given the high consumer expectations of many women, driven by the media, who themselves represent the majority of purchasing transactions in the post-industrial era.

This trend then a result of society's very stilted reaction – (ie non-reaction) - to the collapse of traditional gender-based roles, expectations and capabilities. MGTOW men view it as very unfortunate but necessary to separation from women as the only rational choice in what they view as an irrational, very biased society toward the overt interests of women and the expense of men].

This example demonstrates why, beyond FMCG, and so for auto-makers it is very worthwhile investigating socio-economic developments at this point in time, at what may be seen as at a philosophically deeper level – the very same arena as Zizek and his predecessors.

To this end the loosely defined academic discipline of 'Critical Theory' assists.

One definition cited as: “an activity that takes society as its object, and that attempts to transcend the tensions between individual spontaneity and the work-process relationships on which society is based”. The field itself was born in the 1930s, elements of which were born directly from the rise of consumerism.

[NB Consumerism itself an obviously increasingly important activity as reprieve from and reward for an industrial-age life of toil, and the concomitant 'alienation' of the process-linked, cog-like, factory worker or clerk].

As an idealistic whole, Critical Theory then purports to identify the sociological and pyschological actions and movements which ultimately combine to create the swirls, eddies and current of contemporary culture. Thus better assisting the amateur anthropologist, above and beyond the typically more obvious 'societal readings' of futurologists, in his/her attempt to grasp the emergence of tomorrow's world.

This web-log is hardly the forum by which to proffer notion of a future socio-economic construct, but instead, to provide a flavour, investment-auto-motives provides an uncurated list of selected themes which have and may well continue to underpin change (if past trends continue).

[NB Here it must be stated that in the interest of impartiality, 'Critical Theory' as formed and recognised was created by the “liberal left” academia of Germany and Eastern Europe, propelled by the liberal anti-religious and anti-monarchist conducive atmosphere that was the Weimar Republic, transported to America and the UK by emigree academics before and after WW2. As such anyone absorbing themselves in the field should be aware of the likely heavily 'leftist' political agenda behind its formation and global dispersion; especially so relative to use of mass-media].

This said, it at least serves as a useful 'social catalogue' for those trying to gain focus on the future].

Selected Themes from 'Critical Theory' -
(presented from A- Z)

'Afro-centricism' – Increasing profile in today's super-power soft-power tussle over the agricultural and resource riches of Africa, a school of thought which builds upon the writings of Marcus Garvey, reacting against 'Euro-centrism'.

'Alienation' – First highlighted by Marx with 'unhappy consciousness' resulting from estrangement to an intrinsically natural order. Marx cites structures of (the then) modern capitalism as at fault, with (wo)man effectively experiencing the subconscious feeling of being a disassociated 'cog' within the corporate construct, typically as repetitive action factory worker.

(the) 'Authentic' – Mode of being which seeks to understand the self's existential situation, therefore beyond feelings of 'alienation'. (the) Inauthentic representing the commonplace tranquilized familiarity of the world, convinced that s/he knows everything, and thus likely to drift into 'alienation'. However, the higher the 'authenticism' typically the greater the induced anxiety, given a greater awareness of the apparent truth of a situation, yet “making his own” the freedom to which s/he is condemned. The recent western rise of flexible lifestyles (ie increase in employment instability, greater freelancing etc - as a result of major economic shift - creating a tipping-point toward increased social divides between the 'authentic' and 'inauthentic'; possibly generating a growing social distinction between core creators (physical, cyber and entrepreneurial and peripheral consumers.

'Bio-Politics' – a phrase coined by Foucault in 1979 to denominate how the state seeks to better rationalise the problems caused by and within a population: health, hygiene, birth rates etc. The matter of treating the social body, and with a primary focus on prevention over cure. Lifestyles and child-raising areas increasingly viewed as areas for medical intervention, with medical practice increasingly integrated into socio-economic management of society. The UK's post WW2 NHS promoted this leap in thinking, to maintain a healthy productive population, with latterly the introduction of ever more corporate interests, from 1980s trendy gyms to 2010s active-wearables. Britain's InnovateUK strategic analysis of tomorrow's national economic agenda gave high profile to this field as it shifts from political aim to commercialised reality.

'Bricolage' – French for tinkering about, a 'Bricoleur' undertakes a role as odd-job person or jack-of-all-trades. First properly deployed relative to 'intellectual bricolage' whereby mid 20th century culture became increasingly 'post-modern' with new cultural identities born from varied sources, so creating “new myths”. Seen most obviously in fashion from Mods (adoption of the Italian foreign) to Punks, Rockers, Bikers (anti-establishment iconography) to today's Gangsta appropriation of prison-culture. However, perhaps more meaningfully, today's increasingly less structured, short-termist and temporary employment base, coupled with ageing populace, less prosperity and rise of post 2008 'make do and mend' culture (theatrically re-packaged as the WW2 spirit) may mean that the 'Bricoleur' in its truest sense – a jack-of-all-trades – becomes far more relevant to socio-economic reality. As the games programmer also evolves and sells his/her basic DIY skills. Hence a chameleon-like nature of both relatively highly-skilled and relatively low-skilled economic agent.

[NB If as some predict, the true 'Post-Capitalism' western world does arrive as the result of consistent low growth economic debilitation, such parallel chameleon careers would mimic the traits of the old slow growth 'Eastern-Bloc' model, and this type of national or regional productivity agency would indeed reflect those Marxist ambitions which were a central tenet Communism].

'Counter-Factual' – described as an excursion into imaginary or fictional history; speculation about alternative outcomes or versions of events. (eg “what if there had been no American Revolution”?, “What if communism had not collapsed?, “What if Germany had invaded Britain in 1940? etc etc). Whilst science fiction is hardly achievable without the “what if” question to create alternative circumstances and environments, the 'counter-factual' is presently viewed as at the beginning of a new age. The history of global current affairs is being revisited and retold in a newly cast shadow to match the zeitgaist (ie recent broadsheet newspaper applauding of China's defeating Fascism...yet conveniently ignoring the previous Capitalism vs Communist political friction). And just as this is being worked on the public consciousness, so small but growing groups are appearing, which start to question national and international history as told, seeking greater truths. Hence far greater questioning about that which was taken for granted, perhaps especially so about all that was previously “unquestionable”. 'Counter-Factual' in definition then moved beyond its original meaning and now viewed as intellectual / academic 'Anti-Thesis' for an increasingly educated, sceptical and questioning (post 2008) western populace.

'Commodity Fetishism' – originally, this arises from the twofold nature of a produced object; its functional use and its exchange value. But typically the human input into an item during its manufacture is invisibly subsumed into the very essence of the item, thus the characteristics of labour appear to be the natural properties of the object. A fetish is an object invested with supernatural powers by those who worship it; today's obvious examples being branded luxury shoes, handbags etc, effectively deified by the middle-class female. However, beyond this obvious recognition, Marx's point was that most items exchanged in the capitalist economy hold similar illusory autonomy for its participants.

'Culture Industry' – the traditional (enlightenment based) notion of culture implies a critical attitude to the status qou, social freedom deemed inseparable from this ideology. Whereas the culture industry produces very formulaic products (spanning everything from most art to retro cars) for public consumption. In mass culture the individual consumer is said to be king, but his supposed cultural needs have been anticipated and shaped by the requirements of the industry. Apparently differentiated products sold at different price points are essentially similar in content, but directed to different buyer types (demographics). 'CI' then spans much theory, from commodity fetishism (of say a “throwaway” item of clothing), to 'veblenism' (whereby a high price paid, more than innate qualities of an object, infers status). The 'CI' effect now so engrained it smothers not only obviously 'low' populist culture, but also 'high' culture as its once cutting-edge intellectualism is dulled.

'Deconstructionism' – this term now so popularised in common culture (ie aspirational restaurants serving art-form 'fetishised' food) that its original academic meaning is unknown by most. Deconstructionism originated in the academic philosophical study and dissection of previous philosopher's conclusions, thus leading to ever more introspective / meta-physical appreciation; and likewise in a self-fulfilling manner swelling the ranks of liberal academia and having ever greater bearing on the culture industry. Its primary remit was to shatter the previous idiom of 'structuralism', the typically binary schemas of existence (from natural male-female genders, to right-wing left-wing politics etc) so creating multi-fold possibilities (of sexuality or politics etc) depending upon the prevailing (usually media-led) social narration.

'Dialectic' – a form of reasoning which uses patterns of questions and answers to arrive an truths; accompanied rhetoric and grammer in the original university “trivium”. As part of the 17th/18th century enlightenment movement it was promoted by 'new thinkers' who sought to release the masses from their superstitions, tyranny and so immaturity. So seeking a rational humanity. In reaction to today's deconstructionist media-led social narrations moulding western society – werein only rhetoric is deployed to lead the masses through easily manipulated 'feelings' not rationality - a new opposing re-enlightenment thrust (structuralist) is emerging, with some commentators using dialectic reasoning to underpin their assertions for a less fragmented, more coalesced society.

'Empiricism' – holds that all knowledge is gained via the experiences of the five senses; and allied to 'logical empricism'. This dependent upon neutral and dispassionate observation of the world, common-sense respect for the facts and distrust of speculation. The then 'new left', dissatisfied with “weak empiricism” thereafter created 'theory' and latterly 'critical theory'. However, it must be recognised that the leaps in scientific progress made from the Renaissance onward, in much from astronomy to medicine, even throughout times of harassment and persecution by the then all powerful Church, was thanks to the core belief of empiricism, itself led by a form of belief (and or) spirituality. Today, in an ever more techno-narrative led world, it seems that few high profile voices like Richard Dawkins maintain that questioning, objective stance.

'Ethno-centrism' – the tendency to view the characteristics and cultures of other groups by the standards defined or recognized by the observer's own ethnic group; inevitably negative and pejorative and so subtly or powerfully serve racism. This undoubtedly true, especially amongst those in power who intentionally undermine so as to re-affirm the power structure, even when done in a joking manner. Yet it may also be argued that an increased fragmentation of western society, has been caused, perhaps in reaction to the power-base, whereby once increasingly assimilated groups have latterly created new hybrid identities (part ancestorial, part contemporary drawn from prevailing culture). Ironically then, increasingly it appears that the innate hybridisation of the masses is undermining previous typically colonial based ethno-centricity, even though historically the power-base families of whichever country and creed have inter-mixed with “ethnic others” to grasp economic opportunity.

'Feminism' – the most influential social movement of the 20thc century, obviously based upon the belief that females have been historically suppressed and made unequal to men in regards social rights etc. A long association with socialism, buoyed by in the 1970s publication of 'The Female Eunuch', whilst radical feminism points to the construct of the “patriarchal family”. Today the topic spans much from 'militant feminism' to the 'celebration of gender differences'. As with 'deconstructionism', grown in fragmentation and complexity as identity-based sub-threads emerged, primarily lesbian in tone, the subject now very much blurred in the public eye because of its spread across heterosexual and homosexual interests, and by labels such as 'butch lesbians' and 'lipstick lesbians', 'asexual lesbians', as well as males who have undergone “sexual re-alignment” surgeory. Today's demands for equality highlighted by calls for qoutas at board-room level down, this heralded (far too overly) simply as an echo of Pankhurst's suffrage. Commercialisation of the movement now well entrenched as greater numbers of females became financially independent, so ripe for prospecting (eg female only car insurance, female-only clubs and gym classes, and now the renewed possibility of female-only train carriages).

[NB Feminism per se is now viewed by various newer men's and some female groups as having been hi-jacked by far less honourable women (than its originators) for the purposes of undermining men. From at best the previous lobbying against men only clubs and institutions, only to form their own social segregation, to at worst falsified accusations of violence and rape. So making it harder for the police and law to differentiate between real and false claims, thus wasting social resources for the sake of selfish supposed “female empowerment”].

[NB as regards the effects of real vs false rape, the words of one youtube commentator say it all:
“I've dealt with REAL rape victims, they are usually diagnosed with flashbacks, panic attacks, tendency to hide, refuse to leave the house and try to dress as unattractively as possible, cut contacts to friends, and try to stay alone with absolutely no trust in people anymore and refuse to talk others. Now at that point, if I see supposed 'rape victims' who go around social media [trolling and victimising others] I view them as liars”.

'Flow' – a psychological mode now well understood by many, including general public, yet rarely rejecte. 'Flow' refers to the manner in which television created an absorbing and ongoing temporal experience for the participant, whereas previous participation in a book, film or theatre has been essentially a distinctly singular experience. This social phenomenon long used by television broadcasters to retain viewers and to increase audience sizes, ratings and so the value of advertising revenues. Best illustrated by the creation of 'soap TV' and latterly '24/7 rolling news'. The emergence of the internet saw likewise an intention to create “participatory flow”, with high levels of audience interaction, very much a core strategy of media outlets and commercial entities that wish to retain screen attention for high attention, high profitability business models.

[NB 'flow' is of course reliant upon the subconscious absorption of the people into the the created world of television. Importantly, it must also be noted that very Machiavellian types, often with direct or indirect connections to the media, use the innate power of that subconscious absorption to manipulate the perceptions and emotions of their others to intentionally influence or weaken. The average person – typically very unwary and trusting - should better recognise how this process is deployed by immoral perpetrators. A media history of inbuilt political bias means that today younger people have started to distrust mass media, and portions of the obviously mass-media owned internet. However, a pernicious use of “media messaging”, supported by real-world manipulation, now goes far deeper than the majority of the public understand, and should be well recognised by any person of influential targeted].

'Grand Narratives' - a term in which social belief systems are legitimised by a validating historical philosophy; typically seen as the entwined institutions of a society (eg the Church, Monarchy or National Declaration of Independence). Ostensibly the positing of an origin (ie God) or an end (ie Protection or Emancipation), which can be used as a societal backbone; seen as a powerful methodology of the past, but weakened in the post-modern era, with now a series of 'Little Narratives' seen relative to local and minority interests. It is claimed that few people feel any nostalgia for the increasingly lost grand narratives, yet consumers do indeed gain comfort from regurgitation of previous golden ages and their respective icon products (eg 'originals' [eg Aga cookers or Anglepoise lamps] reproduction furniture and retro-products). These perhaps tangible 'stability substitutions' to gain a feeling of 'hyper-real' consistency in a rapidly changing world.

'Group-In-Fusion' – coined in 1960, the term alludes to individuals who once existing in 'seriality' combine (in 'parallel') to become united in a common purpose. This transcends 'alienation' to allow persons to interact on a collective project. These can be positive when for the social good, but also negative, such as historically; when in a time of food scarcity a queue of people riot in the belief that either not enough food is available, or the first in the queue may wilfully deprive others; and modern times when riots and looting have arisen from the excuse of an overly heavy-handed state.

'Gynocentrism' – a perspective, either for or against, the prevalence of gender-based social movements and politics. Feminists viewing it as obviously central to a cause, whilst its detractors see it as creating social friction between the sexes and within the sexes. Differences between the sexes do indeed exists relative to innate psychology, but this difference may widen relative to age, social background and ethnic culture.

'Habitus' – derived from the Latin, meaning style of dress, disposition, comportment, attitude or character. Essentially, social codification. Used to describe the physical attributes and behaviour which encodes a certain cultural understanding relative to context. From the good manners to defer others (or lack of), to the 'give-away' signifiers such as: an overly extended little finger when drinking from a glass or cup, or the holding of a chilled white wine glass by the bowl. Effectively, the unconscious (and conscious) internalisation of social structures which appear spontaneous / natural but have been absorbed. Historically, invented by the higher ranks of European society, such behavior when 'naturalised in general personal disposition was named “sprezzatura".

[NB It may emerge that during possible continuation of a slow-growth west, that the importance of such 'habitus' may once again grows; especially amongst the well educated (notionally) upper middle class which now may be experiencing comparatively decreased wealth status; thus a renewed form of social snobbery, from whence it came].

'Heritage Industry' – term applied since the mid 1970s to describe the preservation of of sites deemed of historic and aesthetic interest which somehow enshrine an aspect of national heritage. Starting with preservation orders at the end of the C19th, latterly applied to the creation of industrial museums, event re-enactments and re-opening of bygone activities (eg steam railways). Opposing views see the widely varying process as either crucial to historical respect, a populist expression of nostalgia, or the 'Disneyfication' of the past. Nonetheless, an important aspect of the 'imagined community' and 'invented traditions' which underpins national identity.

'Hyper-Reality' – a term first deployed to describe the manner in which American museums and theme-parks are able to provide an illusion of absolute reality via holographs, 3-D dioramas and reproductions of original artworks. They represent a 'hyper-real' dimension in which the American imagination demands the real thing, and in order to attain it, fabricates the absolute fake. Hyper-real being the defining characteristic of Disneyland and Las Vegas: real fakes. Also argued as more real than real given the manner in which man-made objects can be operated to meet expectations, whereas nature does not conform to experiential desires and expectations.

[NB Now with reach far beyond the USA given the export of Disney and similar, the hyper-real is being adopted by museums and cultural organisations, such as Egypt's minutely accurate recreation of Tutankhamum's tomb, so that further tourist damage can be avoided to the original.
In consumerism, aspects of retrospective hyper-reality long seen in consumer products ranging from kitchen appliances to digital radios and cars (Plymouth Prowler, Plymouth Cruiser, New Mini, New Cinquecento, New Dodge Challenger, Morgan Aero8 and +4/+8*. (These also seen as interpretations of the auto-sector's own 'heritage industry', with Mini and Cinquecento now in their 3rd retro-evolved styles).* However seemingly ironic is the fact that the long-lived Morgan 4/4, whilst appearing hyper-real cannot be described as such given production continuation over the decades. Hence as a developed original it was not retro-designed].

J – K little exacting coverage within critical theory, so in the ironic post-modern manner, simply to say “bravo” to the musician and car enthusiast Jay Kay for his efforts against animal exploitation.

Part 2 of this weblog follows, providing the remainder of the A-Z listing of Critical Theory.