Friday, 13 November 2015

Company Focus - Elio Motors – Flight of the (Arizona) Phoenix ?

All things 'eco' has been the macro-economic mantra ever since the Kyoto Summit over twenty-five years ago.

Whilst Japan had been ecologically and sustainability minded because of its limited natural resources for many years, and had long been developing a low-carbon ideology, it wasn't until the efforts of America's Al Gore (with his scaremongering graph of near exponential CO2 growth into an 'untamed' future) that the West started to take 'climate change' seriously. That stance now somewhat undermined by John Kerry's recent visit to Paris, this era of cheap oil and US shale-gas reserves effectively promoting the use of fossil fuels as a critical element of economic expansion.

However, this new propensity for socio-economic, and critically industrial 'eco' change still underpins 21st century perspectives, and is driven as much by the desire to leverage the West's technical advantage compared to advancing developing EM regions dependence to date upon older methods, as it was about the desire to stabilise the quality of the air we collectively breath and the water we drink.

However, as now seen again with Kerry's stance, given its reliance on fossil fuels to power its 20th century ingrained economy, it was no surprise that America lagged the good intent of others, such as the Japan and Scandinavia. The former with research/development prowess and the latter with natural hydro-powered resources had good reason to promote the ecological ideology. Behind Gore's campaigning was no doubt the strength of Wall Street, America's global soft power advantage to have the US$ directed where necessary to buy-in foreign know-how where the previous technological limits of American capabilities fell short.

That said, whilst other nations had somewhat esoteric technical leads, the USA had and has the power of its own industrial history, its enormous domestic scale and its commercial ties across the rest of the world.

That has meant a resuscitation of old, yet meaningful industrial strengths, most notably a recasting of the 1950s 'futurama' dream centred around the beneficial properties of lightweight aluminium. Ford's step-change decision to re-engineer the body structure of its new F-150 is a subtler yet far more commercially powerful evocation of “new future” promise made by Airstream (leisure trailers/caravans) soon after WW2.

American big business then - depending upon its domestic and global strategies – is in a necessarily slow manner, undertaking its own reformation process, from Ford's scale use of aluminium to General Electric's scoping of small-scale, early-phase development ventures for applications in aero-engineering.

The investment communities located in Wall St, Palo Alto, The City, Amsterdam, Paris, Frankfurt and Milan – aswell as further afield – are trying to keep ahead of the 'ecological curve', yet are all to aware of the “ecological curve-balls” induced by wrongly backed technologies and companies that could be ultimately value destructive to the private equity interests of Sovereign Wealth Funds, Institutional Investors and HNW groups.

The transmogrification of the Transport Sector, through both evolutionary technical development and technical sector disruption is one of the primary fields for research, analysis and recommendation by investment luminaries. Yet whilst such 'future forecasting' investment minds are able to digest what is on the development horizon - Jim Mellon a good representative – the ability to predict and help guide such change to deliver prosperous futures for societal stakeholders and investors alike is another challenge altogether.

Especially so when, as history demonstrates, any such new desire for socio-economic change (itself under-pinned by technological progress can be a band-wagon upon which many decide to ride, from the wholly optimistic and naïve to the snake-oil sales-people promising much and delivering little if anything.

Given its immense importance to society, along with energy, life-sciences etc, the transport sector – and specifically the personal transportation device (from car to bicycle) is an arena that has always been seen as ripe for re-invention.

The lightweight, fuel-sipping and affordable new car the seeming ideal – today of course with aligned ecological impetus.

The early success of the Edwardian quadricycle car (eg Ford and Morgan) to the further 'democratisation' of the 'car' in the form of Voisin's tiny Scootamobile, its enclosed British counterpart the Peel Trident, the BMW Isetta to the long-lasting success of the Ligier micro-car brand (thanks to historical precedence of the French regulatory environment).

But as ever, given a combination of the public's automotive fascination, the influence of social trends and the immense financial value of the automotive marketplace, domestically and globally. there is always the “visioneer entrepreneur”, many it seems originating from the West Coast of the USA with disruptive vehicle models as well as disruptive business models.

Whilst the reach into new sectors by the Californian 'IT Technocracy' is best exemplified by Tesla Motors' efforts with its pure EV sportscar, sedan and yet launched SUV, far from its Fremont factory is another far less known hopeful who likewise seeks to change the mode of personal transport, in a 'radically conventional' manner

A radical form, conventionally propelled.

Elio Motors -

Established in 2008, this start-up has sought to propose what at first appears to be rational eco solution for today's and tomorrow's rapidly growing urban and suburban dwellers; firstly across the USA and latterly elsewhere.

The proposition itself appears notionally futuristic given its unconventional 3 wheel configuration., but infact could be viewed in the realm of 'retro-futurism' given its ancestral forebears. This appreciation with a commercial model centred upon the reconfiguration of cheaply available components means that it could be said to have the philosophical overtones of 'steam-punk' if far from its aesthetics.

Most importantly, with its HQ in Phoenix, Arizona, the start-up firm has specifically chosen to mimic the central message of the now legendary 1965 film 'Flight of the Phoenix'. Done so in its central business model by reconfiguring off-the-shelf components available from a standard compact hatchback or sedan into a new overall redesigned and adapted conceptually new proposition.

Just as the crew and passengers of the ill-fated cargo plane in the film combined to produce their own phoenix to escape the Libyan desert, so the board and staff of Elio Motors continue to hope that it can create its own 'white space' innovation in what it sees as the contemporary desert of vehicle invention.

[NB this but one example of how Hollywood's once fictional output has had such an effect on the public consciousness that US money-men seek to leverage that associative relationship in new enterprise].

The Elio vehicle itself appears part car, part motorcycle given its 3-wheeler configuration, whereby two lead wheels are followed by a trailing single wheel.

This intentionally done so as to fit with regulations that allow those with either a motorcycle or car licence to drive. This then seen as casting a wide net over theoretical potential buyers, especially the young who are reported to be less inclined to undertake the efforts to gain a car licence, and indeed run a car, given their increased urban lifestyles and compressed income levels. Instead more likely to ride a bicycle, scooter or motorcycle, and so in turn more likely to view the Elio with greater favour.

This the perceived theory at least.

The 3-wheeled vehicle itself is best described as a fully enclosed, fuselage based, tandem 2-seater, with front engine located FWD. So utilising a direct technology transfer from the small car segment, itself in use for the last 40 years. As seen by the accompanying photo, to the lay-person however the foot-print and over appearance is far from the norm.

Likewise, the Elio re-deploys the usual comforts of a small car, such as steering wheel, power windows, full seats, and safety systems such as air-bags.

The firm's website seeks to convince of the proposition, espousing the low price point of $6,800 , the 84mpg fuel efficiency and being American made.

However, attraction statements such as “gas prices constantly spiking” and comparison to the average “flatulent cow” are flawed.

Presently crude and sweet oil is at record lows, and with good margins at the pumps for integrated oil companies and the political desire to maintain low gas prices the idea of price spikes is an anathema. Likewise, comparison to a cow is disingenuous, since a the typical dairy cow (being a ruminant) actually emits a great deal of green-house gas per head, hence the concern about the global effect of milk and meat production.

A far truer description is given about the re-engineering of the vehicle, its fit for purpose approach and the design for manufacture and cost approach.

Yet realistically, Elio has chosen to effectively bolt-on the front 'cradle' (engine, gearbox, sub-frame suspension, brakes and wheels/tyres) to the front of its 'fuselage'. Combined these components make up a large 'module' and can be sourced from used cars or obviously from suppliers as discrete elements. Thus say the front end of a previous generation Chevrolet Spark, Ford Ka or Chrysler/Lancia Ypsilon could be used, or even something larger from the Compact category in the USA.

Historical Re-Cap -

Both 'old time' engineers and investors will state that “nothing under the sun is new”.

The motorised tricycle (or trike) is as as old a format as the 4-wheeled quadri-cycle. In fact what many consider as possibly the first automobile, Cugnot's steam dray wagon of 1769 was itself a 'trike', with single front wheel at the front (with boiler beyond), the layout of many motorcycle based trikes from the Victorian era onward.

The layout has been historically successful in the commercial utility realm, initially in farm tractors (eg Farm-All, John Deere and many more). Then as a small high mobility utility tractor unit for both trailers and with extended rear as a mini-truck. Typically within relatively confined spaces (eg dock-sides, railway freight depots, and general ware-houses), the models from Germany's Hanomag and Britain's Scammel best known from the 1920s through to the 1960s. Similarly, with a lighter payload and GVW is the Piaggio Ape, in city-truck and passenger guises, later licensed by various Indian (and other) manufacturers to produce the now legendary 'tuk tuk' taxi.

However, in the private passenger car arena the layout has (understandably) been less favoured.

It has been effectively understood that whilst the Edwardian Morgan and its Euro- American counterparts attracted early motorists for on low-level price and running costs - based largely upon motorcycle parts – as soon as “proper” small cars were made available both new and critically second-hand, the very formula of the motorised trike was deemed to rudimentary, and so by-passed by the vast majority of the car buying public. Hence, the public's preference for the Austin Seven or Peugeot Bebe of the 1920s and 1930s and the Austin Mini or FIAT Cinquecento of the 1960s, etc.

Nevertheless there have been various efforts to create an all conquering 3-wheeled private vehicle for the masses, well before the Elio. Many failures, and a few moderate successes.

The Single Front Wheel Configuration -

The high mobility enjoyed by the likes of the Hanomag and Scammel tractor and truck workhorses was also touted as a new USP for potential private vehicles, none more so than during the late 1940s with Davis Divan car on the USA.

Billed as 'the future' for somewhat cash-strapped consumers and returning service-men, its wheel layout was marketed as akin to that of the landing-gear for the exciting new age of jet aircraft – the front wheel replacing the trailing rear jockey-wheel. However, history demonstrates that its apparent entrepreneur was far more interested in raising funding for his own nefarious ends. The seed money and syndicated funds from 350 prospective dealers ultimately “absorbed” by a costly nationwide publicity campaign and seemingly 'lost' on other start-up costs. With only a few demonstrator cars built, it was recognised that the innovation and novelty Mr Davis promised to the many, most despicably using the public's goodwill towards servicemen, was little more than a questionable business platform for his self-serving monetary desires.

As regards the polar opposite...

Far more creditable were the efforts of Britain's Reliant Motor Co from 1935, through to 1956, 1973 and onto the early 1980s with the initial Regal, its successor the Regal II and later (in)famous Robin models.

The Regal had been created in 1935 (and followed similar other vehicles) specifically to cater for the many people (typically men) who were restricted by a motorcycle license. Those who sought their own self-trade delivery vehicle, or could additionally be used within a larger firm's van fleet, proving very successful. The design of the Regal II changed markedly to become far more car-like in styling given its post-war targeting of a new private car market. It was for those who had either having ridden a motorbike all their lives or having learned during the war and by 1953 with savings enough to either buy outright or put a deposit on a couple's or small family car. Typically sold to older folk, the Regal was also made available in van guise as a successor to the Regal Mk1. This model went through six iterations before the introduction in 1973 of the all new body Robin. Marketed as 'all new', this saw 3 generations with engine displacement increased and ongoing style and feature changes, ending UK production at the Reliant Tamworth site in 1983, and elsewhere by 2002 under different ownership. (Licensed for production in Greece between 1974 and 1978).

Cruelly named “the plastic pig” in its dying years, given its lightweight fibre-glass body construction, in its Regal guise (and in the early years of Robin) the vehicle made complete sense as a small and economical trade and private runabout. Although previously the BBC's Top Gear programme abused and ridiculed the Robin, it was safe enough when driven within its somewhat restricted limits compared to modern vehicles. The most concerning dynamic being the vehicle pitch during a braking turn, since the mass of the car is 'vectored' toward an unsupported corner.

However, wholly unlike the Davis Divan of America, it was born from necessity and consistently gave its customers good service and proved for many decades to be a sound business model for its private shareholders of Reliant Motors. Rudimentary in character but demonstrating itself as eminently capable in its limited capacity role.

Seeking to redeploy their capabilities in new market sectors Reliant created the The Bond Car Company and the 'Bond Bug' was launched in 1972, providing sporty appeal, novelty entry system, updated 'wedge' styling in a small 2-seater body.

After the Vietnam war, returning US servicemen who had become partially disabled or who had lost part or all of full left limb, and who had previously been bikers often (very understandably) chose to live the escapist dream – at least part-time – of the counter-culture classic film 'Easy Rider'. To do so a new trend for motorcycle based trikes was born, often using the cheap rear engine and drive-train mechanicals of an older VW Beetle for motive power. A trend which has continued in the biker sub-culture to this day, and at times upon which major manufacturers such as Harley Davidson and Honda have offered officially approved, externally built versions.

Later the Vanderbrink Carver was born using a self-tilt system for improved 'lean-in' cornering to better balance the centre of gravity, aid traction and provide new driver experience. However, with only a few sold Vanderbrink fell into bankruptcy by 2009. the same system has since been seen on BMW's CLEVER concept.

The Double Front Wheel Configuration -
(As per Elio)

Quite obviously there is far greater stability in having a layout which deploys two front wheels and a single fixed rear*; seemingly even better if FWD to ensure greater traction (as per the Elio).

[NB * the use of rear steering akin to a fork-lift truck, very problematic when deployed at anything above very low speeds].

As stated this double front steer package perhaps first popularised in the UK by the early Morgan Aero 3-wheeler. Itself re-produced more recently for the marque's 'connoisseurs' and to add additional authenticity to the brand.

Having seen the trend for race drivers to drift the tail through corners with the belief that overall speed was maintained, (often seen with raced Morgans), in 1923 the Voisin Brothers of France (of aeronautical fame) re-focused their experimental and progressive mindset upon cars: creating the 'Laboritoire' grand prix car. This likewise had a “front pincer” layout but used two closely coupled wheels at the rear instead of a single to prove better 'to the limit' traction. It was thus not built as a mass market car, but Voisin hoped it would influence general vehicle packaging; but did not.

Likewise the experimentalism of the period meant that by the forward-looking 1930s the industrial designer R. Buckminster Fuller sought to apply his heavily marketing derived, psuedo-scientific 'dymaxion principles', to the car. Having already deployed them upon much from domed-buildings to consumer packaging his team created the Dymaxion Car: a radical conceptual proposition ostensibly derived from Eastern European engineering principles (TATRA et al). It enjoyed 'forward control' driving position and commodious cabin space, both assisted by the rear engine, and even rear steering. The latter great in the city at low speeds, but highly dubious (and indeed dangerous) at any medium speed or above. Wholly infeasible for mass market, or indeed niche market, production, it was created solely to demonstrate a story of American creativity – even if actually adopted from elsewhere – and was shown at the 1934 'Century of Progress' Fair in Chicago.

By the late 1940s, with post-war austerity across Europe, the age of experimentalism had long passed. Instead European countries needed to mobilise its people for reconstruction and to earn export income. It was this that lead to Piaggio's revolutionary Vespa scooter. However, the fact that Germany was virtually prohibited to build a standard automobile – seen as an overtly “high value”, potentially high selling item meant that it forced to re-look to the 3-wheeler cyclecar idea and small and under-powered 4-wheeled micro-cars. (The only car exception was the VW Beetle, initially in small numbers for use by the Allies). However, this took far too many years to allow for immediate post-war earnings, with many bubble cars not released until the mid and late 1950s.

The ex aeronautical firms Heinkel, Messerschmidt and BMW, having given its advanced jet technology to the Americans, British and Russians, had to restart vehicle production far further down the 'value-added' scale, with 'bubble cars'. Best known are the Messerschmidt KR175 and KR200 between 1953-5 (ostensibly the same 'fuselage – tandem' layout of the Elio, though rear engined), and Heinkel with the more bulbous Kabine with side-by-side seating in 1956-8. BMW's Isetta was infact a licensed product from Italian firm Iso, yet saw domestic popularity between 1955-62 9also with a double rear wheel version). Fuldamobile operated between 1950-69 and offered models such as the Alta, Attica and 200 series. Many other micro car firms emerged, yet few actually prospered given the short commercial lifespan of the micro-car marketplace.

The 3 wheeler effectively disappeared until the mid 1970s, when (as previously stated) a new trend for trikes came to pass amongst disabled and older bikers, often seeking greater convenience, comfort and carrying capacity than offered by 2 wheels. In turn that trend was sought to be commercialised by both motorcycle manufacturers in small volumes and by other specially created niche build firms. To gain much needed differentiation the likes of the TriHawk were created; echoing the Morgan Aero single rear wheel configuration, but typically driven by a rear mounted small engine and deploying more side by side seating.

Elio Motor's: Re-Invention of the Forgotten Past -
The Story of the “La Mathis VL333” -

Paul Elio's vehicle development efforts represents a contemporary re-invention of a general concept that has been a theme of 'visioneers' from the past, one of them the French Emile Mathis and his 1940s venture. This perhaps a best fit parallel by way of the brief history of the 'La Mathis VL333'.

This taken from the Beaulieu Encyclopedia of the Automobile:

While best known here in the States as the man who teamed up with Henry Ford to build and sell FoMoCos in France (under name Matford), Emile Mathis had a much more detailed, nuanced and altogether interesting life in automobiles outside of his involvement with old Hank, from 1935 to 1938.

After selling his shares of Matford, he tried to build marine engines in the States under the Matam name, but after World War II, he returned to Europe, where he began work on what would have been a fairly revolutionary car. He called it the VL 333 – which stood for voiture legere, three liters of fuel consumed for every 100 kilometers, three wheels and three seats. It had a unibody structure, a Jean Andreau-designed body and front-wheel drive with a front-mounted 700cc boxer engine.

Mathis shopped the VL 333 around, but said that he couldn’t convince the French government to allow him to produce it, thus negating the question whether he could actually convince suppliers to help produce it. It appears he made just the one VL 333.
This then highlights how even by the mid 1940s the western automotive scene had been cast in stone, the standard architecture of the car as we know it well entrenched for nigh on 30 years, with likewise the market strength of large national and international firms; who themselves would produce alternative radical concepts but see little value is trying to disrupt the conventional model of mass private transport. A model which sits at the heart of broad and complex global economies.

Obvious Doubts Remain -

For all the examples of 3-wheelers over time, given the innate draw-backs of greater instability, increased chance of loss of traction and reduced packaging space, ultimately versus a comparable 4-wheeled car, the reduced overall proposition has many more performance and functionality deficiencies.

One old adage that 'trikers' and critics both agree upon is that given the centrally located rear wheel, “if there is a pot-hole in the road you've got three (not two) chances of meeting it”

The innate problems with the trike has meant that when Peugeot (PSA), sought to look into the world of urban light vehicle transport, prompted by the advantages of scooters (in which another company using the Peugeot brand operates), it chose another very different 'scooter - tandem' inspired concept.

The Peugeot BB1 of 2009 is a small tandem arranged 4-seater, with a necessary SWB, all-electric propulsion which critically offers 4 wheels. (Thus closer to a combined Daimler Smart ForTwo and ForFour, with scooter seating).

Idealism Over Reality ? -

As with the progressive efforts of others such as Amory Lovins and his hypercar concept (ultra lightweight and frugal, though conventionally configured), it seems that Paul Elio is indeed “a man on a mission” to revolutionise personal transport for the individual and, no doubt, ideally the masses.

Whilst his continued and undiminished optimism will likely gain applause from those who consider themselves eco-warriors, experimental consumers and technological early adopters, a car is very different to a smart-phone, 'wearable' or new food craze.

Although probably seen as the battling underdog versus the 'capitalist machine' that is Detroit, it is very possible that Elio Motors, beyond Paul Elio's own commercial desires, the 'white space' occupied holds a place within a broader conceptual picture – of scenario planning based potential outcomes – prompted by perhaps a fellow board member or other influential figure.

From its beginnings it seems that throughout commercial history the relationship duality of inventor-innovator with seemingly supporting commercial accomplice has been fraught with at first idealism, then latterly friction. The theory of course, from partnerships upwards, is that the commercially inclined and aware partner has the remit to raise development, production and distribution funds by which the innovators idea can be refined, marketed, launched and scaled-up into production for roll-out across a sales base.

However, all too typically, what seem the basis of a good partnership or syndicate is obscured by the hidden true intent of the commercial 'activist'. Either, selfishly seeking an interim living for themselves paid for by either the innovator's own funds, or with early phase presentational success from a third party; and at worst misrepresenting themselves as wholly 'on-side' with the founder whilst in fact acting as an espionage agent for an already sector entrenched competitor or rival start-up.

This may not indeed be so within Elio Motors, but in the all too common scenario whereby start-ups need business advisory from those with broad network interests and influence, the likelihood is always present.

It is invariably the soundness of this “innovator - commercialiser” relationship which underpins even the smallest chance of eventual market success; and this without the invariable battle against the ingrained norms of sector and consumer which in itself takes up so much time and resource.

Board Level Connections -

A view of the website show that various board members have connections to and experience of:

- Motor Liquidation Company (the once 'toxic' assets separated from new GM)
(hence the Shreveport facility)
- Daimler AG (via the previous Daimler-Chrysler entity)
- New venture and EV networks (ie CarWorks and Next AutoWorks)
- Supplier Networks (ie Lear Corp, etc)
- Distribution and Sales (ie Daimler Smart via Penske Auto Group)
- Commercial Real Estate (acquisition, leasing and re-purposing)

Concept Vehicle or Investment Vehicle ? -

But of course, beyond the high personal ideals of creating one's own car company – all the better with socially relevant credentials - there have been many occasions in the past whereby the generated publicity of a new concept vehicle, has in fact been at least part of a façade for the procurement of a factory site's freehold or long lease at low cost.

Typically acquired during the lowest point of an economic trough with the capital value gain as the economy improves. With indeed the possibility of the entire start-up business model re-orientated to take advantage of alternative 'new opportunities'.

This appears to have been one of the hidden aims of the now legendary Preston Tucker in post WW2 America.

He portrayed himself as a man who seemingly hell-bent upon the technical advancement of the mass passenger car with his 'Tucker 48' (popularised as the 'Torpedo').

He sought to offer tomorrow's safety features of a pivoting central headlight and under dashboard 'crash shelter' – both little more than publicity exercises given their true functionality. On the production side he specified cheaply bought, and not very well performing, surplus aviation engines, once again for marketing hype given patriotic and hi-tech overtones; which reduced the BOM (bill of materials).

However, unlike his very well self-funded, aeronautically inclined, notional counter-part Howard Hughes, when Preston Tucker sought the purchase of a massive war surplus factory, the sheer scale of the empty facility made those in the auto-industry question his wholly unrealistic ambition, if the site was indeed to be used, as stated, for the venture's own small manufacturing volumes.

Tucker sought to partly use (as he did) and thereafter sub-lease the facility to other auto-related firms. But few others were tempted. His back-stop, or possible real ambition, to 'flip' (ie sell-on) his interest in the all too large facility in better economic times also crumbled, given its enormous size.

The true intentions behind this seemingly wholly illogical decision regards scale were further blurred, or made clear, by his 'Pre-Order' accessories scheme. In post-WW2 America, those civilians who bought and paid for pre-ordered feature items and merchandising items could reserve a vehicle and not be bumped-down the order list by the official, and much publicly condoned, sales preference to returning service-men. This then obviously bringing-in early phase income.

Tucker's salesmanship and aligned business gambits were of course of their time, yet the post 2008 credit crisis also provided a once in a lifetime opportunity to purchase large, low value plant facilities, none more so than through the Motors Liquidation Company.

This time, as Fox News reported in January 2013, such properties were commercially handled by the RACER Trust, with dozens of ex-General Motors' sites on its books after GM's Chapter 11 restructuring. Yet a spokesman for the RACER Trust denied knowledge of the Elio proposal at the time. (The truth behind the innate politicking between negotiating parties was/is hard to ratify).

Elio Motor's targeted production site is Shreveport, Louisana, a 3.1m sq ft plant that previously produced GM pickup trucks and the mid-size truck based Hummer H3. Paul Elio wholly admits that the site is indeed overtly large and to help off-set costs seeks to create discrete partitions by which other companies can take up operations.

By January 2015 (Wikipedia states that) $65m had been secured, a further $230m was required, of which a hoped for portion worth £185m to come through the Dept of Energy's 'Advanced Vehicle Manufacturing' budget. The Italian tool and plant supplier Comau (a subsidiary of FCA Group) is said to be fitting-out Shreveport for Elio Motors' use.

Yet, to date, postponement of what may be called achieved 'project gateways', and it seems capturing of funds, means that little true apparent progress has been made.

It appears that the RACER Trust is well aware of the future potential of Shreveport and its many other sites (eg Livonia, Flint etc), and has a remit to ensure that it is able to capture both a substantive valuation increase of the worth of its real estate, and critically that any new use (auto-related or otherwise) is able to offer economic regeneration to the locale.

Hence RACER will be naturally weary of any firm that seeks to potentially buy and flip its stewarded properties.

Engine Timing -

Likewise, the intended 3 cylinder engine, apparently engineered by IAV has not come into fruition, so delaying the product and process time-lines.

Moreover, it appears odd that such a small-scale start-up venture would seek to create either its own engine, or chose to heavily modify what should be an 'off-the-shelf' unit. Indeed given the lightweight body construction, any number of readily available 3 or 2 cylinder engines could be feasibly used from other car or motorcycle manufacturers or direct from OEM suppliers, standard 'crated' units procured as necessary.

To End -

As seen throughout automotive history, there have been visionary dreamers who seek to revolutionise the everyday norm, from Karl Benz's first creation of the car through to Clive Sinclair's efforts with his C5 electric trike, and today beyond, some with semi-realistic aims and others with fantasist ideas.

However, the problem with those semi-realistic aims, with obviously Elio Motors at the margins of this envelope, is that the reality of creating a start-up alternative car company is fraught with problems, from product acceptance by the public and its massive costs of a marketing campaign, through to the sourcing of identical and near identical components and modules when up and running as a serious operation.

[NB the tribulations of the UK's niche vehicle industry in securing bought-in parts has often been a major contributing factor to product and business demise].

Alternately, as seen with Preston Tucker, either the all too commercially aware inventor themselves, a partner or influential internal/external figure, may be using the business as little more than a smoke-screen to actually acquire assets – typically real estate – at a low price. With the intention of being seen to attempt to run a respectable business, while in effect the auto-business model is set up to gain government aid (special enterprise zones for employment or eco-tech and ideally both), create a trickle of produced cars, and ultimately fold with the prized asset(s) sold off via a separate entity to ensure a cash windfall. Such an example today would see the any such large plant sold off to the FDI interests of a serious, large foreign entrant (most likely Japan [assisted by Abenomics], S.Korea, China or India).

This may well be the view the RACER Trust takes of Elio Motors and other similar efforts across the USA like it, simply an intermediary buyer-seller.

Only time will tell if Elio Motors has indeed caught or created the beginnings of a light-trike age for a new generation mindset, or if the diplomatic interests under-pinning FDI into the USA succeed.

Even if the latter, Paul Elio, if backers see a true possibility, he has the opportunity to fly his automotive phoenix elsewhere across the USA.

Perhaps looking at another 'bird' before doing so...the 'TriHawk' and its use of more cost effective, fuel efficient motorcycle technology. Only because little exists in this world which is “neither fish nor fowl”.